Q&A for Cartagena Act

s_07-01.jpg I am concerned about the safety of using LMOs.
s_07-02.jpg  The Cartagena Act ensures safety through the conservation of biological diversity. As you can see from the figure below, domestic regulations in Japan only allow for those uses which have been confirmed safe.
 Genetically modified foods, for example, are subject to regulation by the Japan Agricultural Standards (JAS) Act and the Food Sanitation Act.
s_07-04.jpg I would like to know detailed information about risk assessment for each approved LMOs.
s_07-05.jpg  Please go to the website of J-BCH mentioned in the page of “Publications Concerning the Cartagena Act”
(http://www.biodic.go.jp/bch/english/e_index.html) and look at the risk assessment report used for evaluation.
s_07-06.jpg Are there any instances in which a genetically modified crop which is resistant to chemical herbicides has become an escaped weed? Also, if the resistant gene moves into weeds, increasing the number of weeds that cannot be killed using chemical herbicides, what will be done?
s_07-07.jpg  Most cultivated crops cannot grow without humans weeding, watering and fertilizing them. Approved herbicide-tolerant crops are evaluated on the basis that their tolerance will not increase their fecundity or vitality. In addition, herbicide-tolerant crops show resistance only to particular chemical herbicides. It is hard to think that these particular chemical herbicides are disseminated widely and continuously in natural environment. Therefore, they have been evaluated that they do not have any more advantages than other plants.
 In addition, it is impossible for the recombinant gene to move into weeds of other species with which the LMOs cannot cross-pollinate.
s_07-08.jpg I have heard that a survey conducted by the Ministry of the Environment found a hybrid between genetically modified rapeseed and another species which propagated itself in the environment.
s_07-09.jpg  These genetically modified rapeseeds were evaluated under the laws established by the Cartagena Act and were found to pose no threat to biological diversity even if hybridization occurs. As such, these rapeseeds were approved for agricultural cultivation in Japan.
 The seed that Ministry of the Environment found is supposedly the hybrid that is from genetically modified rapeseeds (Brassica napus) and another species of rapeseed (Brassica rapa). “B.rapa” are originally introduced from other countries. They are not native of Japan. Therefore, this hybridization itself is not considered as adverse effect on biological diversity in Japan.
s_07-10.jpg I have heard that there are genetically modified fluorescent fishes. Is it possible to keep them as pets in Japan?
s_07-11.jpg  In some countries, there are cases of feeding “fluorescent fish” (medaka, or zebra danio) into which genes that produce fluorescent proteins are introduced from jelly fish, etc. However, in Japan, it is not approved by the Cartagena Act at the present day, December 2016.

s_07-12.jpg Geneyically modified zebra danio
©Japan Wildlife Research Center
s_07-13.jpg What countermeasures will be taken if unexpected adverse effects on biological diversity arise?
s_07-14.jpg  In those cases when adverse effects on biological diversity are found, applicant must quickly take necessary steps in conformity to a stated plan about emergency measures submitted on application. Additionally, the competent minister must change or abolish Type 1 Use regulation and to make users stop using it or to take necessary measures in these cases.