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Threatened Species
Threatened Species
ąŁ The revised Red List and Red Data Book
Definition of the Red List and Red Data Book
The Red List is a compilation of endangered wildlife species of Japan whereas the Red Data Book provides data on population status of the species included in the Red List.
Both the Red List and Red Data Book show the risk of extinction based on the biologicaldata. They have no legal definition but serveas the scientific basis for the promotion of endangered wildlife conservation.

Aim and details of the revised Red List and Red Data Book
The first Red Data Book of animals, compiled in 1991 by the Environment Agency, needed a periodical revision as a result of changes in wildlife distribution and habitat. In addition, IUCN adopted a revised set of Red List Categories in 1994. Because of these two reasons, the Environment Agency has been revising, since 1995, the Red List and Red Data Book by setting up a group of specialists in mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and so on.
The first Red Data Book of plants is also currently in the process of compilation by the Environment Agency.
Once the Red List of both animals and plants are completed, the Red Data Book of both will be prepared.

List of existing and forthcoming Red Lists
Amphibians & Reptiles August 7 1997
Mammals June 12 1998
Birds June 12 1998
Fishes February 18 1999
Insects FY 1999 (scheduled)
Other invertebrates FY 1999 (scheduled)
Vascular plants August 28 1997
Non-vascular plants August 28 1997

ąŁ Red Data Book Categories (Environment Agency 1997)
In December 1994, IUCN adopted a revised set of Red List Categories. The revision had been prepared, since 1989, mainly by the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC).
The characteristics of the revised categories are summarized as follows:

(1) Numeric criterion is used to assess extinction risk instead of previously used qualitative criterion.
(2) taxa which face a risk of extinction are collectively termed as "Threatened", but divided into the three categories:
"Critically Endangered"(CR), "Endangered"(EN) and "Vulnerable"(VU).

UCN Red List of Threatened Animals, adopted in October 1996, was the first Red List based on the revised Red List Categories.

The Environment Agency has considered the use of revised categories for the compilation of the Red Data Book of plants and revision of the Red Data Book of animals. The quantitative criterion, which enables more objective assessment, was considered more appropriate than previously used qualitative criterion, and also the revised categories are more likely to be widely applied internationally in the future.
Thus, in principle, the Environment Agency has decided to abide by the revised categories.
However, there are many species which have inadequate information to make an assessment based on the numeric index. Therefore, previously used "qualitative factors" and newly adopted "quantitative factors"( numerical index ) will be used at the same time.
Whenever an assessment by numeric index is possible, the "quantitative factors" will be used.
Although qualitative and quantitative factors may not be strictly compatible, at present, the dual usage of two factors appears to be the best resolve.

The text below gives an outline of definitions of the categories based on IUCN Red Data Book Categories

Extinct (EX)
Extinct in the Wild (EW)
Threatened Threatened I(CR+EN) IA Critically Endangered(CR)
IB Endangered(EN)
Threatened II (VU)
Near Threatened (NT)
Data Deficient (DD)
Appendix [Locally Threatened Population(LP)]
Note: When numerical assessment is possible, a taxon under the category of Threatened will be divided into the two categories :
Critically Endangered IA and Endangered IB.
ąŁ Current outline of animal, plant and fungi species found in Japan and also the endangered species (as of February 1999)
Classification based upon new categories
Group Total Number of Species Extinct Extinct in the Wild Threatened Near Threatened Data Deficient Number of Endangered Species
Threatened I Threatened II
Animals Mammals About
4 0 11 20 16 16 9 47
Birds About
13 1 17 25 48 16 15 90
Amphibians 97 0 0 2 5 11 9 1 18
Reptiles 64 0 0 1 4 9 5 0 14
Brackish and fresh water fishes About
3 0 29 29 18 12 5 76
Plants Vascular plants 7087 17 12 471 410 518 108 365 1399
Mosses About
0 0 110 70 4 54 180
Algae About
5 2 34 6 24 0 40
Lichens About
3 0 22 23 17 17 45
Fungi About
28 1 51 11 0 0 62
ąŁ Classification based upon old categories
Group Total Number of Species Extinct Threatened Rare Number of Endangered Species
Endangered Vulnerable
Animals which are not mentioned above Insects 30146 2 23 15 166 38
Brackish and fresh water crustaceans 197 0 0 7 45 7
Terrestrial and fresh water shells 824 0 34 39 54 73
Others 4040 0 4 3 11 7
Extinct : species thought to be extinct in Japan
Extinct in the Wild : species found only in captivity or cultivation
Threatened I (Critically Endangered + Endangered),Endangered : species facing a risk of extinction
Threatened II, Vulnerable : species facing a very high risk of extinction
Near Threatened, Rare : species facing a difficulty in maintaining the viable population

*The status of endangered species is revised periodically per group. The group which has been revised since 1997 was assessed based upon new categories adopted in 1996.

(1) The number of species (including sub species) is derived from A Checklist of the Japanese Species of Wildlife (Environment Agency 1993, 1995).
(2) The number of vascular plants ( including sub species) is derived from the report compiled by Japan Society of Plant Taxonomist.
(3) The numbers of mosses, algae, lichens and fungi ( including sub species) are derived from the results of survey conducted by the Environment Agency.
(4) The status of endangered species (including sub species) based upon new categories is provided by the Environment Agency ( 1997, 1998, 1999) whereas the one based upon previous categories is derived from the Threatened Species of Japan - Invertebrates ( Environment Agency 1991).
ąŁ IUCN Red List Categories and Red Data Book Categories of Japan

ąŁ Red List Download

[CSV format]

[TEXT format]

ąŁ The 4ht RDB Species Information Search
"The 4th RDB Species Information Search" is based on the 4th Red Data(published to 2013-2012), The Threatened Wildlife of Japan-Red Data-Revised Edition.
Search animal RDB Search animal RDB Search plant's RDB Search vascular plant's RDB
Search non-vascular plant's RDB Search non-vascular plant's RDB
ąŁ The RDB Species Information Search(old)
"The New RDB Species Information Search" is based, as far as reptiles and amphibians are concerned, on the already published book, The Threatened Wildlife of Japan-Red Data Book-Revised Edition (Volume of reptiles and amphibians 2000). Therefore, please mind that the listed species and ranks are different from those RDB species reported in 1991. As for the other taxonomical groups, the contents of the old Red Data Book (1991) may be searched. With regard to the red list, both old and new entries may be searched.
Search animal RDB Search new animal RDB Search plant's RDB Search vascular plant's RDB
Search old animal RDB Search non-vascular plant's RDB

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